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Biochem Soc Trans. 2013 Dec;41(6):1518-24. doi: 10.1042/BST20130237.

Astrocyte glutamine synthetase: pivotal in health and disease.

Author information

1
*Hepato-Neuro Laboratory, Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CRCHUM) - Hôpital Saint-Luc, Pavillon Édouard-Asselin, Local 402, 264 boulevard René-Lévesque Est, Montréal, Québec, Canada, H2X 1P1.

Abstract

The multifunctional properties of astrocytes signify their importance in brain physiology and neurological function. In addition to defining the brain architecture, astrocytes are primary elements of brain ion, pH and neurotransmitter homoeostasis. GS (glutamine synthetase), which catalyses the ATP-dependent condensation of ammonia and glutamate to form glutamine, is an enzyme particularly found in astrocytes. GS plays a pivotal role in glutamate and glutamine homoeostasis, orchestrating astrocyte glutamate uptake/release and the glutamate-glutamine cycle. Furthermore, astrocytes bear the brunt of clearing ammonia in the brain, preventing neurotoxicity. The present review depicts the central function of astrocytes, concentrating on the importance of GS in glutamate/glutamine metabolism and ammonia detoxification in health and disease.

PMID:
24256247
DOI:
10.1042/BST20130237
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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