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J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2013 Dec;33(12):1886-96. doi: 10.1038/jcbfm.2013.134. Epub 2013 Aug 7.

Tracer kinetic modeling of [(11)C]AFM, a new PET imaging agent for the serotonin transporter.

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Diagnostic Radiology, PET Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.


[(11)C]AFM, or [(11)C]2-[2-(dimethylaminomethyl)phenylthio]-5-fluoromethylphenylamine, is a new positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand with high affinity and selectivity for the serotonin transporter (SERT). The purpose of this study was to determine the most appropriate kinetic model to quantify [(11)C]AFM binding in the healthy human brain. Positron emission tomography data and arterial input functions were acquired from 10 subjects. Compartmental modeling and the multilinear analysis-1(MA1) method were tested using the arterial input functions. The one-tissue model showed a lack of fit in low-binding regions, and the two-tissue model failed to estimate parameters reliably. Regional time-activity curves were well described by MA1. The rank order of [(11)C]AFM binding potential (BPND) matched well with the known regional SERT densities. For routine use of [(11)C]AFM, several noninvasive methods for quantification of regional binding were evaluated, including simplified reference tissue models (SRTM and SRTM2), and multilinear reference tissue models (MRTM and MRTM2). The best methods for region of interest (ROI) analysis were MA1, MRTM2, and SRTM2, with fixed population kinetic values ( or b') for the reference methods. The MA1 and MRTM2 methods were best for parametric imaging. These results showed that [(11)C]AFM is a suitable PET radioligand to image and quantify SERT in humans.

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