Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Acta Ophthalmol. 2014 May;92(3):e237-40. doi: 10.1111/aos.12192. Epub 2013 Jul 26.

The entoptic view of the retinal vessels.

Author information

Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT, USA.


The first time the retinal vessels were seen in man in vivo was reported in 1819 by Purkinje as an entoptic view. This was understood to show the shadow of the vessels, an interpretation objected to in 1834 by Brewster. Müller in 1855 (Über die entoptische wahrnehmung der netzhautgefässe, insbesondere als beweismittel für die lichtperception durch die nach hinten gelegenen netzhautelemente, Stahel, Würzburg) used the phenomenon to deduce the location of the photoreceptive layer of the retina, and his conclusion is accepted as true today. Because the phenomenon has some characteristics of an afterimage, it touches on the question of what is subjective and what is objective physical reality. It was recently used clinically to measure potential visual acuity and in the diagnoses of diabetic retinopathy and macular degeneration.


H. Müller; afterimage; angioscotometry; entoptic phenomena; photoreception Purkinje; retinal vessels; visual neuroscience

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Wiley
    Loading ...
    Support Center