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Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2013 Mar;14(3):133-9. doi: 10.1038/nrm3522. Epub 2013 Jan 30.

Amino acid signalling upstream of mTOR.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmacology and Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA.

Abstract

Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a conserved Ser/Thr kinase that is part of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), a master regulator that couples amino acid availability to cell growth and autophagy. Multiple cues modulate mTORC1 activity, such as growth factors, stress, energy status and amino acids. Although amino acids are key environmental stimuli, exactly how they are sensed and how they activate mTORC1 is not fully understood. Recently, a model has emerged whereby mTORC1 activation occurs at the lysosome and is mediated through an amino acid sensing cascade involving RAG GTPases, Ragulator and vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (v-ATPase).

PMID:
23361334
PMCID:
PMC3988467
DOI:
10.1038/nrm3522
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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