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Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2013 Aug;59(5):431-42. doi: 10.1177/0020764012462662. Epub 2012 Oct 21.

Prevention of demoralization in prolonged bicultural conflict and interaction: the role of cultural receptors II - genesis of hybridization.

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Yale University School of Medicine, Cheshire, CT, USA.



The objective of this article is to show that bicultural hybridization for the prevention of demoralization is anchored on the discovery of certain thematic areas (cultural receptors) in which social roles or cultural mandates are missing, unclear, ambiguous or congruent.


The specific setting is the history of Goa, a former Portuguese territory on the western coast of India. Both published and unpublished sources of information were studied.


Education, occupation and income, the three dimensions of social class, were less dominant than other aspects of the Hindu caste system, such as birth into a group viewed as a caste, observance of marriage circles, regulations of kinship and inheritance, and identification with a location. These other aspects were preserved as much as possible. The result was the conversion of the caste system into a system more akin to social class. Other examples of cultural receptors were found.


A key step in the adaptation to acculturative stress is the discovery of cultural receptors in both cultures and the development of meaningful interconnections among those receptors. Psychotherapy attempts the restoration of morale. To be effective, therapists should consider the hierarchical organization of symbols and sentiments in the patient's culture.


Acculturation; Goa; demoralization; history; stress

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