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Int Immunol. 2013 Jan;25(1):1-10. doi: 10.1093/intimm/dxs101. Epub 2012 Oct 5.

Autophagy and selective deployment of Atg proteins in antiviral defense.

Author information

1
Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.

Abstract

Autophagy is an evolutionarily ancient process eukaryotic cells utilize to remove and recycle intracellular material in order to maintain cellular homeostasis. In metazoans, the autophagy machinery not only functions in this capacity but also has evolved to perform a diverse repertoire of intracellular transport and regulatory functions. In response to virus infections, the autophagy machinery degrades viruses, shuttles viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns to endosomes containing Toll-like receptors, facilitates viral-antigen processing for major histocompatibility complex presentation and transports antiviral proteins to viral replication sites. This is accomplished through canonical autophagy or through processes involving distinct subsets of the autophagy-related genes (Atgs). Herein, we discuss how the variable components of the autophagy machinery contribute to antiviral defense and highlight three emerging themes: first, autophagy delivers viral cytosolic components to several distinct endolysosomal compartments; second, Atg proteins act alone, as subgroups or collectively; and third, the specificity of autophagy and the autophagy machinery is achieved by recognition of triggers and selective targeting by adaptors.

PMID:
23042773
PMCID:
PMC3534236
DOI:
10.1093/intimm/dxs101
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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