Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Alcohol Alcohol. 2013 Jan-Feb;48(1):9-14. doi: 10.1093/alcalc/ags104. Epub 2012 Sep 27.

Rare ADH variant constellations are specific for alcohol dependence.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, West Haven, CT 06516, USA.

Abstract

AIMS:

Some of the well-known functional alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene variants (e.g. ADH1B*2, ADH1B*3 and ADH1C*2) that significantly affect the risk of alcohol dependence are rare variants in most populations. In the present study, we comprehensively examined the associations between rare ADH variants [minor allele frequency (MAF) <0.05] and alcohol dependence, with several other neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders as reference.

METHODS:

A total of 49,358 subjects in 22 independent cohorts with 11 different neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders were analyzed, including 3 cohorts with alcohol dependence. The entire ADH gene cluster (ADH7-ADH1C-ADH1B-ADH1A-ADH6-ADH4-ADH5 at Chr4) was imputed in all samples using the same reference panels that included whole-genome sequencing data. We stringently cleaned the phenotype and genotype data to obtain a total of 870 single nucleotide polymorphisms with 0< MAF <0.05 for association analysis.

RESULTS:

We found that a rare variant constellation across the entire ADH gene cluster was significantly associated with alcohol dependence in European-Americans (Fp1: simulated global P = 0.045), European-Australians (Fp5: global P = 0.027; collapsing: P = 0.038) and African-Americans (Fp5: global P = 0.050; collapsing: P = 0.038), but not with any other neuropsychiatric disease. Association signals in this region came principally from ADH6, ADH7, ADH1B and ADH1C. In particular, a rare ADH6 variant constellation showed a replicable association with alcohol dependence across these three independent cohorts. No individual rare variants were statistically significantly associated with any disease examined after group- and region-wide correction for multiple comparisons.

CONCLUSION:

We conclude that rare ADH variants are specific for alcohol dependence. The ADH gene cluster may harbor a causal variant(s) for alcohol dependence.

Comment in

PMID:
23019235
PMCID:
PMC3523382
DOI:
10.1093/alcalc/ags104
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Publication types, MeSH terms, Substance, Grant support

Publication types

MeSH terms

Substance

Grant support

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Silverchair Information Systems Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center