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Addict Behav. 2012 Dec;37(12):1349-52. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2012.07.010. Epub 2012 Jul 28.

Mood and smoking behavior: the role of expectancy accessibility and gender.

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Divisions of Substance Abuse and Women's Behavioral Health Research, Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06519, USA.


Little is known about overall or gender-specific factors that may influence the relationship between negative affect and smoking behavior such as smoking expectancies. This paper presents a secondary analysis from a laboratory studying gender differences in smoking behavior following a musical mood induction [Weinberger, A.H., & McKee, S.A., 2012, Gender differences in smoking following an implicit mood induction. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 14(5), 621-625]. The current analyses examine the role of expectancies (endorsement and accessibility) in the relationship of gender, affect, and smoking. Ninety adult smokers (50% female) were randomly assigned to a negative mood induction, positive mood induction, or neutral condition while completing a single laboratory session. Expectancy endorsement, expectancy accessibility, affect, and smoking topography were assessed following the mood induction. Female smokers with faster accessibility of negative reinforcement expectancies smoked more cigarettes, had longer puff durations, and had shorter inter-puff intervals. Women with faster expectancy accessibility were also more likely to endorse negative reinforcement smoking expectancies. This study was the first to demonstrate links among gender, mood, and accessibility of smoking-related beliefs. Information about the role of expectancy accessibility in smoking behavior can lead to both a better understanding of gender-specific mechanisms of smoking behavior and new directions for smoking treatment development.

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