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Nat Rev Neurosci. 2011 Nov 30;13(1):22-37. doi: 10.1038/nrn3138.

The stressed synapse: the impact of stress and glucocorticoids on glutamate transmission.

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1
Center of Neuropharmacology, Department of Pharmacological Sciences and Center of Excellence on Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Milan, 20133 Milan, Italy.

Abstract

Mounting evidence suggests that acute and chronic stress, especially the stress-induced release of glucocorticoids, induces changes in glutamate neurotransmission in the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus, thereby influencing some aspects of cognitive processing. In addition, dysfunction of glutamatergic neurotransmission is increasingly considered to be a core feature of stress-related mental illnesses. Recent studies have shed light on the mechanisms by which stress and glucocorticoids affect glutamate transmission, including effects on glutamate release, glutamate receptors and glutamate clearance and metabolism. This new understanding provides insights into normal brain functioning, as well as the pathophysiology and potential new treatments of stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders.

PMID:
22127301
PMCID:
PMC3645314
DOI:
10.1038/nrn3138
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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