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PLoS One. 2011;6(11):e26726. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026726. Epub 2011 Nov 7.

A novel, functional and replicable risk gene region for alcohol dependence identified by genome-wide association study.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America. Lingjun.Zuo@yale.edu

Abstract

Several genome-wide association studies (GWASs) reported tens of risk genes for alcohol dependence, but most of them have not been replicated or confirmed by functional studies. The present study used a GWAS to search for novel, functional and replicable risk gene regions for alcohol dependence. Associations of all top-ranked SNPs identified in a discovery sample of 681 African-American (AA) cases with alcohol dependence and 508 AA controls were retested in a primary replication sample of 1,409 European-American (EA) cases and 1,518 EA controls. The replicable associations were then subjected to secondary replication in a sample of 6,438 Australian family subjects. A functional expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis of these replicable risk SNPs was followed-up in order to explore their cis-acting regulatory effects on gene expression. We found that within a 90 Mb region around PHF3-PTP4A1 locus in AAs, a linkage disequilibrium (LD) block in PHF3-PTP4A1 formed the only peak associated with alcohol dependence at p<10(-4). Within this block, 30 SNPs associated with alcohol dependence in AAs (1.6×10(-5)≤p≤0.050) were replicated in EAs (1.3×10(-3)≤p≤0.038), and 18 of them were also replicated in Australians (1.8×10(-3)≤p≤0.048). Most of these risk SNPs had strong cis-acting regulatory effects on PHF3-PTP4A1 mRNA expression across three HapMap samples. The distributions of -log(p) values for association and functional signals throughout this LD block were highly consistent across AAs, EAs, Australians and three HapMap samples. We conclude that the PHF3-PTP4A1 region appears to harbor a causal locus for alcohol dependence, and proteins encoded by PHF3 and/or PTP4A1 might play a functional role in the disorder.

PMID:
22096494
PMCID:
PMC3210123
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0026726
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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