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Mol Biol Cell. 2011 Sep;22(18):3456-64. doi: 10.1091/mbc.E11-04-0361. Epub 2011 Jul 27.

Effects of integrin-mediated cell adhesion on plasma membrane lipid raft components and signaling.

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Robert M. Berne Cardiovascular Research Center, Mellon Urological Cancer Research Institute, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA.


Anchorage dependence of cell growth, which is mediated by multiple integrin-regulated signaling pathways, is a key defense against cancer metastasis. Detachment of cells from the extracellular matrix triggers caveolin-1-dependent internalization of lipid raft components, which mediates suppression of Rho GTPases, Erk, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in suspended cells. Elevation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) following cell detachment is also implicated in termination of growth signaling in suspended cells. Studies of integrins and lipid rafts, however, examined mainly ganglioside GM1 and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked proteins as lipid raft markers. In this study, we examine a wider range of lipid raft components. Whereas many raft components internalized with GM1 following cell detachment, flotillin2, connexin43, and Gα(s) remained in the plasma membrane. Loss of cell adhesion caused movement of many components from the lipid raft to the nonraft fractions on sucrose gradients, although flotillin2, connexin43, and H-Ras were resistant. Gα(s) lost its raft association, concomitant with cAMP production. Modification of the lipid tail of Gα(s) to increase its association with ordered domains blocked the detachment-induced increase in cAMP. These data define the effects of that integrin-mediated adhesion on the localization and behavior of a variety of lipid raft components and reveal the mechanism of the previously described elevation of cAMP after cell detachment.

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