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Pediatr Emerg Care. 2011 Jul;27(7):676-81. doi: 10.1097/PEC.0b013e3182228f10.

Renal stones: evolving epidemiology and management.

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Division of Emergency Medical Services, Children's Mercy Hospital, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA.


The incidence of renal stones in adults has increased significantly over time. Although published evidence is somewhat limited, during the last 10 years, there have been reports of 4-fold increase in the number of children evaluated for nephrolithiasis, and of those, a 7-fold increase in diagnosis of stone disease. The etiology of stone formation has shifted over time, with a transition from infectious causes to metabolic causes. It was our goal in this review of the literature on pediatric renal stone disease to further highlight the changing epidemiology and etiology as well as provide a framework for appropriate clinical evaluation and use of diagnostic tools when approaching a patient with suspected renal stone disease. We also provide guidance regarding treatment and prevention of renal stone disease in children.

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