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Perit Dial Int. 2011 May-Jun;31(3):279-86. doi: 10.3747/pdi.2010.00196.

Incidence of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis: a single-center experience with long-term peritoneal dialysis in the United States.

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Hospital of St. Raphael, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.


Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a serious complication of long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD). The reported incidence varies between 0.5% and 4.4% and increases with length of time on PD. Very few data are available on the epidemiology of EPS in the United States. The aim of the present study was assess the incidence of EPS in a single center in New Haven, Connecticut. In a retrospective analysis of all patients maintained on PD for 5 or more years, clinical symptoms were documented, abdominal computed tomography (CT) findings were reviewed, and surgical and pathology findings were noted. Patients were tracked whether they remained on PD, transferred to hemodialysis (HD), underwent transplantation, or died. Among the 76 patients that met the inclusion criteria (mean dialysis duration: 81.5 ± 22 months), 14 (18%) developed clinical symptoms (persisting for 3 or more months) suggestive of EPS. Abdominal CT imaging was done in 38 patients; 25 had radiologic features consistent with EPS. At laparotomy, 6 of 7 patients had gross findings consistent with EPS. Eleven patients met the 2000 criteria of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis for a diagnosis of EPS; they had clinical features, plus either radiologic or histopathologic confirmation. In 3 patients with clinical symptoms, the radiologic or surgical findings did not support a diagnosis of EPS. Of the 11 patients meeting the EPS criteria, 1 remains on PD and is doing well, 2 were transferred to HD and are doing well, 2 died as a result of EPS complications, and 6 died of other causes. The present study suggests that, in patients maintained on PD for 5 or more years at our center, the incidence of EPS is 14%. Those findings suggest that EPS may be underrecognized in the United States and that a high index of suspicion is warranted in patients maintained on PD for 5 or more years.

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