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J Urol. 2011 Jun;185(6 Suppl):2542-6. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2011.01.031. Epub 2011 Apr 28.

The efficacy of oral midazolam for decreasing anxiety in children undergoing voiding cystourethrogram: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study.

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Division of Urology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.



Voiding cystourethrogram is an invasive test that evokes anxiety. Our primary aim was to determine whether midazolam is beneficial in decreasing anxiety in children who undergo voiding cystourethrogram. Secondary aims were an examination of parent anxiety, health care professional perceptions and post-procedure behavioral outcomes in children after voiding cystourethrogram.


A total of 44 children were randomized to placebo or oral midazolam before voiding cystourethrogram in double-blind fashion. The Modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale was used to evaluate child behavior before and during voiding cystourethrogram, and the Post Hospitalization Behavior Questionnaire was used to investigate any short-term and intermediate-term behavioral outcomes. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was used to evaluate parent personal anxiety during voiding cystourethrogram. A separate questionnaire was administered to radiology staff. Statistical analysis included the 2-sample t and Fisher exact tests.


There was no difference in Modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale scores in children randomized to midazolam or placebo. There was also no significant difference in parent anxiety. Radiology care providers identified no reliable benefit when blinded to sedation vs placebo. We did not note any post-procedural behavior issues after voiding cystourethrogram at up to 6 months of followup.


Midazolam may not significantly help with child or parent anxiety during voiding cystourethrogram. No reliable benefit was noted according to radiology health care provider perception and there was no significant post-procedural behavior benefit. Midazolam may not provide a significant benefit in decreasing anxiety during voiding cystourethrogram.

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