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Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2011 Jul;4(4):381-91. doi: 10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.110.961854. Epub 2011 Apr 19.

Targeted imaging of the spatial and temporal variation of matrix metalloproteinase activity in a porcine model of postinfarct remodeling: relationship to myocardial dysfunction.

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Experimental Nuclear Cardiology Laboratory, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520-8017, USA.



Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are known to modulate left ventricular (LV) remodeling after a myocardial infarction (MI). However, the temporal and spatial variation of MMP activation and their relationship to mechanical dysfunction after MI remain undefined.


MI was surgically induced in pigs (n = 23) and cine magnetic resonance (MR) and dual-isotope hybrid single-photon emission CT (SPECT)/CT imaging obtained using thallium-201 and a technetium-99m-labeled MMP targeted tracer ((99m)Tc-RP805) at 1, 2, and 4 weeks post-MI along with controls (n = 5). Regional myocardial strain was computed from MR images and related to MMP zymography and ex vivo myocardial (99m)Tc-RP805 retention. MMP activation as assessed by in vivo and ex vivo (99m)Tc-RP805 imaging and retention studies was increased nearly 4-fold within the infarct region at 1 week post-MI and remained elevated up to 1 month post-MI. The post-MI change in LV end-diastolic volumes was correlated with MMP activity (y = 31.34e(0.48x), P = 0.04). MMP activity was increased within the border and remote regions early post-MI, but declined over 1 month. There was a high concordance between regional (99m)Tc-RP805 uptake and ex vivo MMP-2 activity.


A novel, multimodality, noninvasive hybrid SPECT/CT imaging approach was validated and applied for in vivo evaluation of MMP activation in combination with cine MR analysis of LV deformation. Increased (99m)Tc-RP805 retention was seen throughout the heart early post-MI and was not purely a reciprocal of thallium-201 perfusion. The (99m)Tc-RP805 SPECT/CT imaging may provide unique information regarding regional myocardial MMP activation and predict late post-MI LV remodeling.

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