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Diabet Med. 2011 Jan;28(1):61-72. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03138.x.

Increased risk of cardiovascular disease in Type 1 diabetes: arterial exposure to remnant lipoproteins leads to enhanced deposition of cholesterol and binding to glycated extracellular matrix proteoglycans.

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Alberta Institute for Human Nutrition, Alberta Diabetes Institute, Mazankowski Alberta Heart Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.



To determine fasting and postprandial metabolism of apolipoprotein B48 (apoB48) remnant lipoproteins in subjects with Type 1 diabetes and the relationship to progressive cardiovascular disease, and to investigate the impact of remnant lipoprotein cholesterol accumulation associated with arterial wall biglycan using a rodent model of Type 1 diabetes.


Normolipidaemic subjects (n = 9) with long-standing Type 1 diabetes (and advanced cardiovascular disease) and seven healthy control subjects were studied. Fasting and postprandial apoB48 concentration was determined following a sequential meal challenge. A rodent model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes was used to investigate the ex vivo retention of fluorescent-conjugated remnants. Binding of remnant lipoproteins to human recombinant biglycan was assessed in vitro.


A significantly higher concentration of fasting plasma apoB48 remnants was observed in patients with Type 1 diabetes compared with control subjects. Patients with Type 1 diabetes exhibited a greater total plasma apoB48 area under the curve (AUC) and an increased incremental AUC following a second sequential meal compared with control subjects. The arterial retention of remnants ex vivo and associated cholesterol was increased sevenfold in Type 1 diabetes rats relative to controls. Remnants were shown to bind with significant affinity to human biglycan in vitro and a further 2.3-fold increased binding capacity was observed with glycated biglycan. Remnants were shown to colocalize with both arterial biglycan and glycated matrix proteins in the Type 1 diabetes rodent model.


Impaired metabolism of remnant lipoproteins associated with enhanced binding to proteoglycans appears to contribute to the arterial cholesterol deposition in Type 1 diabetes. Our findings support the hypothesis that impaired remnant metabolism may contribute to accelerated progression of atherosclerosis in the hyperglycaemic and insulin-deficient state.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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