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Thorac Surg Clin. 2011 Feb;21(1):59-67, vi-vii. doi: 10.1016/j.thorsurg.2010.08.001.

Management of stage I and II thymoma.

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Section of Thoracic Surgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520-8062, USA.


With a knowledgeable assessment of the clinical presentation and demographic and radiologic characteristics, most thymomas can be reliably identified preoperatively without the need for a biopsy. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment for stage I and II thymoma. The rate of complete resection is essentially 100% by open techniques, and recurrences are rare. A complete thymectomy via a sternotomy is the standard approach. Adjuvant radiotherapy after a complete resection does not appear to be of benefit. In the rare event of a recurrence, an aggressive approach should be taken with re-resection whenever possible.

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