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Clin Microbiol Infect. 2010 Sep;16(9):1328-34. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2010.03336.x.

Diagnosis of invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised children.

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Division of Paediatric Haematology/Oncology, Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.


Early recognition and rapid initiation of effective treatment is a prerequisite for successful management of children with invasive fungal infections. The increasing diversity of fungal pathogens in high-risk patients, the differences in the antifungal spectra of available agents and the increasing rates of resistance call for identification of the infecting isolate at the species level and for information on drug resistance, in order to provide state-of-the-art patient care. Microscopy and culture of appropriate specimens remain the reference standard for mycological diagnosis, despite difficulties in obtaining appropriate and/or sufficient specimens, long durations of culture and false-negative results. Modern imaging studies and detection of circulating fungal cell wall components and DNA in blood and other body fluids or in affected tissues may improve the laboratory diagnosis of invasive mycoses.

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