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Ann Thorac Surg. 2010 Mar;89(3):998-1005. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2009.07.097.

Management of carcinoid tumors.

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Thoracic Surgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8062, USA.


Primary bronchopulmonary carcinoids comprise a significant proportion of carcinoid tumors. The clinical presentation allows prediction of the diagnosis and cell type and directs evaluation and treatment. Young age, central tumor, and no nodal enlargement are highly suggestive of typical carcinoid. These patients require no further diagnostic or staging tests beyond chest computed tomography and bronchoscopy before resection using parenchyma-sparing techniques. All bronchopulmonary carcinoids are malignant (though indolent), and surgical intervention is the mainstay of treatment. Mediastinoscopy is suggested when there is moderate suspicion of atypical carcinoid (central cN1 or peripheral cN0), with lobectomy and lymphadenectomy if the mediastinal nodes are benign. For a high suspicion of atypical carcinoid (central cN2, peripheral cN1, 2), imaging for distant metastases and mediastinoscopy is suggested, with multimodality treatment for an atypical carcinoid with N2 involvement.

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