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PLoS Pathog. 2009 Aug;5(8):e1000538. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000538. Epub 2009 Aug 7.

Salmonella Typhimurium type III secretion effectors stimulate innate immune responses in cultured epithelial cells.

Author information

1
Section of Microbial Pathogenesis, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Abstract

Recognition of conserved bacterial products by innate immune receptors leads to inflammatory responses that control pathogen spread but that can also result in pathology. Intestinal epithelial cells are exposed to bacterial products and therefore must prevent signaling through innate immune receptors to avoid pathology. However, enteric pathogens are able to stimulate intestinal inflammation. We show here that the enteric pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium can stimulate innate immune responses in cultured epithelial cells by mechanisms that do not involve receptors of the innate immune system. Instead, S. Typhimurium stimulates these responses by delivering through its type III secretion system the bacterial effector proteins SopE, SopE2, and SopB, which in a redundant fashion stimulate Rho-family GTPases leading to the activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and NF-kappaB signaling. These observations have implications for the understanding of the mechanisms by which Salmonella Typhimurium induces intestinal inflammation as well as other intestinal inflammatory pathologies.

PMID:
19662166
PMCID:
PMC2714975
DOI:
10.1371/journal.ppat.1000538
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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