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Transplantation. 2009 Apr 15;87(7):1069-77. doi: 10.1097/TP.0b013e31819d3173.

Skin-autofluorescence is an independent predictor of graft loss in renal transplant recipients.

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Department of Internal Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen and University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.



Skin-autofluorescence (skin-AF) noninvasively measures the tissue accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs are nephrotoxic and potential effectors of cardiovascular mortality. We investigated whether skin-AF predicted graft loss after kidney transplantation.


A total of 302 renal transplant recipients were enrolled at a median time of 6.1 (2.6-12.1) years after transplantation and were subsequently followed up for first occurrence of graft loss (i.e., graft failure or all-cause mortality) for 5.2 (4.6-5.4) years. The association of baseline skin-AF with graft loss was investigated with univariable and multivariable Cox-regression and receiver-operator-characteristic curve analyses.


Baseline skin-AF was 2.7+/-0.8 arbitrary units. Skin-AF predicted graft loss in a univariable Cox regression analysis (Hazard ratios 2.40 [1.75-3.29], P<0.001) and in a multivariable model (Hazard ratios 1.83 [1.22-2.75], P=0.003), adjusted for other identified risk-factors, including patient age, creatinine clearance, protein excretion, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and human leukocyte antigen-DR mismatching. The area under the receiver-operator-characteristic curve for skin-AF as predictor of graft loss was significantly different from 0.5. Skin-AF was also a significant predictor of graft failure and mortality as separate end points.


We conclude that skin-AF is an independent predictor of graft loss in kidney transplant recipients. Although skin-AF is not a direct measurement for AGEs, we believe that our results do support the hypothesis that accumulation of AGEs in renal transplant recipients contributes to the development of graft loss.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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