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Radiology. 2009 May;251(2):398-407. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2512080880. Epub 2009 Mar 10.

Renal lesions: characterization with diffusion-weighted imaging versus contrast-enhanced MR imaging.

Author information

1
Department of Radiology, New York University Langone Medical Center, 560 First Ave, New York, NY 10016, USA. bachir.taouli@nyumc.org

Abstract

PURPOSE:

To compare the diagnostic performance of diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with that of contrast material-enhanced (CE) MR imaging and to assess the performance of these examinations combined for the characterization of renal lesions, with MR follow-up and histopathologic analysis as the reference standards.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

The institutional review board waived the requirement of informed patient consent for this retrospective HIPAA-compliant study. One hundred nine renal lesions in 64 patients (46 men, 18 women; mean age, 60.7 years) were evaluated with CE MR imaging and breath-hold DW imaging performed with various b values. Renal lesions were characterized with use of CE MR criteria, and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) were measured. The ADCs of benign and malignant lesions were compared at Mann-Whitney testing. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to assess the accuracy of DW imaging and CE MR imaging in the diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC).

RESULTS:

The 109 renal lesions--81 benign lesions and 28 RCCs--had a mean diameter of 4.2 cm +/- 2.5 (standard deviation). The mean ADC for RCCs (1.41 x 10(-3) mm(2)/sec +/- 0.61) was significantly lower (P < .0001) than that for benign lesions (2.23 x 10(-3) mm(2)/sec +/- 0.87) at DW imaging performed with b values of 0, 400, and 800 sec/mm(2). At a cutoff ADC of less than or equal to 1.92 x 10(-3) mm(2)/sec, the area under the ROC curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity of DW imaging for the diagnosis of RCCs (excluding angiomyolipomas) were 0.856, 86%, and 80%, respectively. The corresponding AUC, sensitivity, and specificity of CE MR imaging were 0.944, 100%, and 89%, respectively. Combined DW and CE MR imaging had 96% specificity. The AUC for the DW imaging-based diagnosis of solid RCC versus oncocytoma was 0.854. Papillary RCCs had lower ADCs than nonpapillary RCCs.

CONCLUSION:

DW imaging can be used to characterize renal lesions; however, compared with CE MR imaging, it is less accurate. DW imaging can be used to differentiate solid RCCs from oncocytomas and characterize the histologic subtypes of RCC.

PMID:
19276322
DOI:
10.1148/radiol.2512080880
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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