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J Neurosci. 2009 Feb 11;29(6):1707-18. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5549-08.2009.

Oxidative neuroenergetics in event-related paradigms.

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Magnetic Resonance Research Center, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA.


Energetic basis of neural activity provides a solid foundation for noninvasive neuroimaging with calibrated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Calculating dynamic changes in cerebral oxidative energy utilization (CMR(O(2))) is limited by uncertainties about whether or not the conventional blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) model can be applied transiently using multimodal measurements of blood flow (CBF) and volume (CBV) that affect the BOLD signal. A prerequisite for dynamic calibrated fMRI is testing the linearity of multimodal signals within a temporal regimen, as assessed by signal strength (i.e., both intensity and width). If each hyperemic component (BOLD, CBV, CBF) is demonstrated to be linear with neural activity under various experimental conditions, then the respective transfer functions generated by deconvolution with neural activity should be time invariant and thus could potentially be used for calculating CMR(O(2)) transients. Hyperemic components were investigated at 11.7 T in alpha-chloralose-anesthetized rats and combined with electrophysiological recordings of local field potential (LFP) and multiunit activity (MUA) from the cortex during forepaw stimulation, in which stimulus number and frequency were varied. Although relationships between neural activity and stimulus features ranged from linear to nonlinear, associations between hyperemic components and neural activity were linear. Specific to each hyperemic component, a universal transfer function (with LFP or MUA) yielded predictions in agreement with experimental measurements. The results identified a component of the BOLD signal that can be attributed to significant changes in CMR(O(2)), even for temporal events separated by <200 ms.

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