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J Surg Res. 2009 Jul;155(1):94-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2008.08.036. Epub 2008 Sep 29.

Percutaneous US-guided implantation of Vx-2 carcinoma into rabbit liver: a comparison with open surgical method.

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Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA.



To evaluate technical feasibility and experimental usefulness of percutaneous US-guided implantation of Vx-2 carcinoma in rabbit liver.


Forty-eight New Zealand White male rabbits were used. Solid tumor mass of Vx-2 carcinoma was harvested from carrier rabbit, and minced tumor cells were implanted. Twenty-four rabbits underwent percutaneous US-guided tumor implantation, and the same number of rabbits underwent open laparotomy tumor implantation. Tested parameters included technical success, procedural time, amount of anesthesia, recovery time, complications, tumor size, and regional tumor seeding.


A new percutaneous US-guided implantation was technically feasible in all rabbits. Evaluation parameters showed that the percutaneous US-guided implantation method is less invasive than the open laparotomy method. Targeting rate for left lateral lobe of implantation site was comparable in both methods (91.7% of percutaneous US-guided; 95.8% in open laparotomy). The success rate of tumor growth in the liver was 100% in both groups. However, in the group with US-guidance, tumor seeding developed more frequently in five of 24 rabbits (20.8%) than in open laparotomy group (2/24, 8.3%). Five rabbits had thoracoabdominal wall needle tract seeding, and two rabbits had tumor seeding at both thoracoabdominal wall and intraperitoneal space.


Percutaneous US-guided implantation of Vx-2 carcinoma in rabbit liver is a less invasive alternative to open laparotomy, achieving equally successful tumor growth in the liver. Although percutaneous US-guidance implantation method may not be considered for long-term survival study design because of the possibility of tumor seeding, it can be considered for nonsurvival study design.

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