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Immunol Rev. 2009 Jan;227(1):221-33. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-065X.2008.00731.x.

Pattern recognition receptors and control of adaptive immunity.

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Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Immunobiology, Yale University, School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA.


The mammalian immune system effectively fights infection through the cooperation of two connected systems, innate and adaptive immunity. Germ-line encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of the innate immune system sense the presence of infection and activate innate immunity. Some PRRs also induce signals that lead to the activation of adaptive immunity. Adaptive immunity is controlled by PRR-induced signals at multiple checkpoints dictating the initiation of a response, the type of response, the magnitude and duration of the response, and the production of long-term memory. PRRs thus instruct the adaptive immune system on when and how to best respond to a particular infection. In this review, we discuss the roles of various PRRs in control of adaptive immunity.

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