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J Exp Med. 2008 Dec 22;205(13):3159-71. doi: 10.1084/jem.20081298. Epub 2008 Dec 8.

MyD88-dependent, superoxide-initiated inflammation is necessary for flow-mediated inward remodeling of conduit arteries.

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Department of Surgery, Interdepartmental Program in Vascular Biology and Therapeutics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA.


Vascular remodeling normalizes abnormal hemodynamic stresses through structural changes affecting vessel size and wall thickness. We investigated the role of inflammation in flow-mediated vascular remodeling using a murine model of partial outflow reduction without flow cessation or neointima formation. Common carotid arteries decreased in size after ipsilateral external carotid artery ligation in wild-type mice, but not in myeloid differentiation protein-88 (MyD88)-deficient mice. Inward remodeling was associated with MyD88-dependent and superoxide-initiated cytokine and chemokine production, as well as transient adventitial macrophage accumulation and activation. Macrophage depletion prevented flow-mediated inward vascular remodeling. Expression of MyD88 by intrinsic vascular cells was necessary for cytokine and chemokine production and changes in vessel size, whereas MyD88 expression by bone marrow-derived cells was obligatory for changes in vessel size. We conclude that there are at least two distinct roles for MyD88 in flow-mediated inward remodeling of conduit arteries. Our findings suggest that inflammation is necessary for vascular adaptation to changes in hemodynamic forces.

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