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Am J Transplant. 2019 Mar;19(3):865-875. doi: 10.1111/ajt.15062. Epub 2018 Sep 17.

Vascularized composite allotransplantation in the United States: A descriptive analysis of the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network Data.

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United Network for Organ Sharing, Richmond, VA, USA.
Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.
Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.
UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
The Hospital of the University of PA, Philadelphia, PA, USA.


On July 3, 2014, the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network/United Network for Organ Sharing was charged with the oversight of vascularized composite allograft (VCA) procurement and transplantation in the United States. As of December 31, 2017, 61 VCA programs at 27 centers were approved in the United States. Fifty candidates have been added to the waiting list at 15 centers. Twenty-eight VCA transplants have been performed at 14 programs (10 upper limb, 10 uterus, 5 craniofacial, 1 scalp, 1 abdominal wall, and 1 penile). Twenty-two VCAs were procured from 21 deceased donors, resulting in 109 non-VCA organs transplanted (15 hearts, 3 intestine, 40 kidney, 20 livers, 24 lungs, and 7 pancreata). Six uterus transplants were performed from living donors. Fourteen candidates were still waiting at 9 centers on December 31, 2017. Two of the 10 uterus recipients had live births and 3 still had viable grafts. Seventeen of 18 nonuterus recipients had functioning grafts. At present, VCA is an emerging field with a small number of patients transplanted. Data on posttransplant survival and functional outcomes continue to be collected to further the understanding of this complex and evolving field. Further systematic data are important for policy refinement and assurance of patient safety.


Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network; clinical research/practice; patient characteristics; registry/registry analysis; statistics; vascularized composite and reconstructive transplantation


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