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Vaccine. 2008 Nov 25;26(50):6329-37. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.09.031. Epub 2008 Oct 1.

Single-dose, virus-vectored vaccine protection against Yersinia pestis challenge: CD4+ cells are required at the time of challenge for optimal protection.

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Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, 310 Cedar Street LH 315, New Haven, CT 06510, USA.


We have developed an experimental recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) vectored plague vaccine expressing a secreted form of Yersinia pestis low calcium response protein V (LcrV) from the first position of the VSV genome. This vector, given intramuscularly in a single dose, induced high-level antibody titers to LcrV and gave 90-100% protection against pneumonic plague challenge in mice. This single-dose protection was significantly better than that generated by VSV expressing the non-secreted LcrV protein. Increased protection correlated with increased anti-LcrV antibody and a bias toward IgG2a and away from IgG1 isotypes. We also found that the depletion of CD4+ cells, but not CD8+ cells, at the time of challenge resulted in reduced vaccine protection, indicating a role for cellular immunity in protection.

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