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J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008 Aug;19(8):1444-50. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2008010123. Epub 2008 Jun 25.

Tracking the toll of kidney disease.

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Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.


Since the discovery of the Toll-like receptors and their crucial role as modulators of innate immunity, there has been increasing appreciation of their role in human health and disease. Toll-like receptor signaling is critical in defending against invading microorganisms, but sustained receptor activation is also implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Here we review the role of Toll-like receptors and their endogenous ligands in various renal diseases, particularly their activation in the inflammatory response of ischemic kidney injury, organ transplantation, and immune-mediated glomerulonephritis.

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