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Mol Biol Cell. 2007 Nov;18(11):4508-18. Epub 2007 Sep 5.

Arrestins and spinophilin competitively regulate Na+,K+-ATPase trafficking through association with a large cytoplasmic loop of the Na+,K+-ATPase.

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Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520-8026, USA.


The activity and trafficking of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase are regulated by several hormones, including dopamine, vasopressin, and adrenergic hormones through the action of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Arrestins, GPCR kinases (GRKs), 14-3-3 proteins, and spinophilin interact with GPCRs and modulate the duration and magnitude of receptor signaling. We have found that arrestin 2 and 3, GRK 2 and 3, 14-3-3 epsilon, and spinophilin directly associate with the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and that the associations with arrestins, GRKs, or 14-3-3 epsilon are blocked in the presence of spinophilin. In COS cells that overexpressed arrestin, the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase was redistributed to intracellular compartments. This effect was not seen in mock-transfected cells or in cells expressing spinophilin. Furthermore, expression of spinophilin appeared to slow, whereas overexpression of beta-arrestins accelerated internalization of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase endocytosis. We also find that GRKs phosphorylate the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase in vitro on its large cytoplasmic loop. Taken together, it appears that association with arrestins, GRKs, 14-3-3 epsilon, and spinophilin may be important modulators of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase trafficking.

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