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Cloning. 1999;1(1):3-15.

Nuclear equivalence, nuclear transfer, and the cell cycle.

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PPL Therapeutics, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.


The last 20 years have seen the development of techniques for the production of mammals by nuclear transfer. Originally limited to the swapping of pronuclei and the use of early cleavage-stage embryos as nuclear donors, nuclear transfer came of age in 1995 with the birth of 2 Welsh Mountain lambs, Megan and Morag, that were produced using cultured differentiated cells as donors of genetic material. In 1996, Dolly was the first animal to be produced using the genetic material from an adult-derived somatic cell. The techniques used in the production of these animals have now been reproduced in both sheep and cattle, and as predicted, successful development has been obtained using donor cells taken directly ex vivo. This article reviews the current status of mammalian nuclear transfer and the biological background to these successes.

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