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J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2006 Jan;26(1):79-91.

A multiparametric assessment of oxygen efflux from the brain.

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Magnetic Resonance Research Center, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA.


A quantitative understanding of unidirectional versus net extraction of oxygen in the brain is required because an important factor in calculating oxidative metabolism by calibrated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) as well as oxygen inhalation methods of positron emission tomography (15O2-PET) and nuclear magnetic resonance (17O2-NMR)) is the degree of oxygen efflux from the brain back into the blood. Because mechanisms of oxygen transport from blood to brain are dependent on cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and oxygen partial pressure (pO2) values in intravascular (Piv) and extravascular (Pev) compartments, we implemented multimodal measurements of these parameters into a compartmental model of oxygen transport and metabolism (i.e., hemoglobin-bound oxygen, oxygen dissolved in plasma and tissue spaces, oxygen metabolized in the mitochondria). In the alpha-chloralose anesthetized rat brain, we used magnetic resonance (7.0 T) and fluorescence quenching methods to measure CMRO2 (2.5+/-1.0 micromol/g min), CBF (0.7+/-0.2 mL/g min), Piv (74+/-10 mm Hg), and Pev (16+/-5 mm Hg) to estimate the degree of oxygen efflux from the brain. In the axially distributed compartmental model, oxygen molecules in blood had two possible fates: enter the tissue space or remain in the same compartment; while in tissue there were three possible fates: enter the blood or the mitochondrial space, or remain in the same compartment. The multiparametric results indicate that the probability of unmetabolized (i.e., dissolved) oxygen molecules reentering the blood from the tissue is negligible and thus its inclusion may unnecessarily complicate calculations of CMRO2 for 15O-PET, 17O-NMR, and calibrated fMRI methods.

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