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Hypertension. 2005 May;45(5):828-33. Epub 2005 Apr 11.

Mechanisms of insulin resistance in humans and possible links with inflammation.

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Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Conn 06510, USA.


Insulin resistance is a major player in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, and yet, the mechanisms responsible for it remain poorly understood. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies in humans suggest that a defect in insulin-stimulated glucose transport in skeletal muscle is the primary metabolic abnormality in insulin-resistant type 2 diabetics. Fatty acids appear to cause this defect in glucose transport by inhibiting insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and IRS-1 associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity. A number of different metabolic abnormalities may increase intramyocellular/intrahepatic fatty acid metabolites; these include increased fat delivery to muscle/liver as a consequence of either excess energy intake or defects in adipocyte fat metabolism and acquired or inherited defects in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. Understanding the molecular/biochemical defects responsible for insulin resistance is beginning to unveil novel therapeutic targets for treatment of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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