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J Appl Physiol (1985). 2005 Jun;98(6):1991-7. Epub 2005 Feb 17.

Progesterone increases plasma volume independent of estradiol.

Author information

1
The John B. Pierce Laboratory, Yale University School of Medicine, 290 Congress Ave., New Haven, CT 06519, USA. nstach@jbpierce.org

Abstract

Adequate plasma volume (PV) and extracellular fluid (ECF) volume are essential for blood pressure and fluid regulation. We tested the hypotheses that combined progesterone (P(4))-estrogen (E(2)) administration would increase ECF volume with proportional increases in PV, but that P(4) would have little independent effect on either PV or ECF volume. We further hypothesized that this P(4)-E(2)-induced fluid expansion would be a function of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system stimulation. We suppressed P(4) and E(2) with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist in eight women (25 +/- 2 yr) for 16 days; P(4) (200 mg/day) was added for days 5-16 (P(4)) and 17beta-estradiol (2 x 0.1 mg/day patches) for days 13-16 (P(4)-E(2)). On days 2 (GnRH antagonist), 9 (P(4)), and 16 (P(4)-E(2)), we estimated ECF and PV. To determine the rate of protein and thus water movement across the ECF, we also measured transcapillary escape rate of albumin. In P(4), P([P(4)]) increased from 2.5 +/- 1.3 to 12.0 +/- 2.8 ng/ml (P < 0.05) with no change in P([E(2)]) (21.5 +/- 9.4 to 8.6 +/- 2.0 pg/ml). In P(4)-E(2), plasma concentration of P(4) remained elevated (11.3 +/- 2.7 ng/ml) and plasma concentration of E(2) increased to 254.1 +/- 52.7 pg/ml (P < 0.05). PV increased during P(4) (46.6 +/- 2.5 ml/kg) and P(4)-E(2) (48.4 +/- 3.9 ml/kg) compared with GnRH antagonist (43.3 +/- 3.2 ml/kg; P < 0.05), as did ECF (206 +/- 19, 244 +/- 25, and 239 +/- 27 ml/kg for GnRH antagonist, P(4), and P(4)-E(2), respectively; P < 0.05). Transcapillary escape rate of albumin was lowest during P(4)-E(2) (5.8 +/- 1.3, 3.5 +/- 1.7, and 2.2 +/- 0.4%/h for GnRH antagonist, P(4), and P(4)-E(2), respectively; P < 0.05). Serum aldosterone increased during P(4) and P(4)-E(2) compared with GnRH antagonist (79 +/- 17, 127 +/- 13, and 171 +/- 25 pg/ml for GnRH antagonist, P(4), and P(4)-E(2), respectively; P < 0.05), but plasma renin activity and plasma concentration of ANG II were only increased by P(4)-E(2). This study is the first to isolate P(4) effects on ECF; however, the mechanisms for the ECF and PV expansion have not been clearly defined.

PMID:
15718411
DOI:
10.1152/japplphysiol.00031.2005
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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