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J Biol Chem. 2004 Oct 22;279(43):44370-5. Epub 2004 Aug 9.

13C NMR isotopomer analysis of anaplerotic pathways in INS-1 cells.

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Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA.


Anaplerotic flux into the Kreb's cycle is crucial for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells. However, the regulation of flux through various anaplerotic pathways in response to combinations of physiologically relevant substrates and its impact on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion is unclear. Because different pathways of anaplerosis generate distinct products, they may differentially modulate the insulin secretory response. To examine this question, we applied 13C-isotopomer analysis to quantify flux through three anaplerotic pathways: 1) pyruvate carboxylase of pyruvate derived from glycolytic sources; 2) pyruvate carboxylase of pyruvate derived from nonglycolytic sources; and 3) glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). At substimulatory glucose, anaplerotic flux rate in the clonal INS-1 832/13 cells was approximately 40% of Kreb's cycle flux, with similar contributions from each pathway. Increasing glucose to 15 mm stimulated insulin secretion approximately 4-fold, and was associated with a approximately 4-fold increase in anaplerotic flux that could mostly be attributed to an increase in PC flux. In contrast, the addition of glutamine to the perfusion media stimulated GDH flux approximately 6-fold at both glucose concentrations without affecting insulin secretion rates. In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that a signal generated by anaplerosis from increased pyruvate carboxylase flux is essential for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in beta-cells and that anaplerosis through GDH does not play a major role in this process.

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