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AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2004 Apr;18(4):199-208.

Cross-resistance patterns among HIV protease inhibitors.

Author information

1
AIDS Program, Division of Infectious Diseases, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510-2483, USA. Michael.kozal@yale.edu

Abstract

Acquired resistance to antiretroviral agents is an established sequela of HIV pharmacotherapy. Viral mutations can confer reduced susceptibility to antiretroviral medications, resulting in virologic and clinical failure in more than half of treated patients. Cross-resistance that can develop within each drug class leads to the progressive loss of future therapeutic options for individual patients. Although protease inhibitors (PIs) are a potent class of antiretrovirals, resistance can still develop rapidly, and multiple-PI resistance has become a serious, growing clinical problem. Development of rational treatment strategies that recognize specific patterns of cross-resistance among PIs are needed to help clinicians choose the most appropriate PI. Rational sequencing of PI use should be based on genotypic and phenotypic resistance testing. Maintaining higher drug plasma levels or using specific PI combinations may also diminish PI cross-resistance. New agents that are less likely to induce or be susceptible to cross-resistance will be of value in HIV treatment. This article reviews the acquisition of resistance to currently available PIs, discussing the drug-specific mutational patterns and evidence of clinical cross-resistance. The resistance profiles of two newer PIs, atazanavir and tipranavir, are also presented.

PMID:
15142350
DOI:
10.1089/108729104323038874
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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