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J Virol. 2004 Apr;78(8):3930-40.

Highly effective control of an AIDS virus challenge in macaques by using vesicular stomatitis virus and modified vaccinia virus Ankara vaccine vectors in a single-boost protocol.

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Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA.


Previous studies have shown that vaccination and boosting of rhesus macaques with attenuated vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) vectors encoding Env and Gag proteins of simian immunodeficiency virus-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) hybrid viruses protect rhesus macaques from AIDS after challenge with the highly pathogenic SHIV 89.6P (23). In the present study, we compared the effectiveness of a single prime-boost protocol consisting of VSV vectors expressing SHIV Env, Gag, and Pol proteins to that of a protocol consisting of a VSV vector prime followed with a single boost with modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing the same SHIV proteins. After challenge with SHIV 89.6P, MVA-boosted animals controlled peak challenge viral loads to less than 2 x 10(6) copies/ml (a level significantly lower than that seen with VSV-boosted animals and lower than those reported for other vaccine studies employing the same challenge). MVA-boosted animals have shown excellent preservation of CD4(+) T cells, while two of four VSV-boosted animals have shown significant loss of CD4(+) T cells. The improved protection in MVA-boosted animals correlates with trends toward stronger prechallenge CD8(+)-T-cell responses to SHIV antigens and stronger postchallenge SHIV-neutralizing antibody production.

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