Send to

Choose Destination
Clin Cancer Res. 2004 Jan 1;10(1 Pt 1):173-7.

Macrophage colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor expression is associated with poor outcome in breast cancer by large cohort tissue microarray analysis.

Author information

Departments of Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.



Macrophage colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R) is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor, which is abnormally expressed in invasive breast cancer. Small cohort studies have demonstrated that increased expression of CSF-1R is associated with ipsilateral breast cancer recurrence. Correlation with survival has not been reported. Our aim was to further evaluate the role of CSF-1R in breast cancer, by studying the expression of CSF-1R in a large cohort of clinical specimens.


Tissue microarrays containing 301 node-negative and 280 node-positive cases were used. Immunohistochemical staining was performed and correlated with overall survival, nodal status, and other clinicopathological data.


CSF-1R expression was strongly associated with nodal status. Of the node-negative cases, 114 (38.9%) stained positive for CSF-1R, whereas 189 (67.5%) of the node-positive cases expressed CSF-1R (P < 0.0001). CSF-1R expression is also associated with larger tumor size (P = 0.02). Positive staining was strongly associated with decreased survival (P = 0.0003). Among node-negative patients, CSF-1R expression was associated with decreased overall survival (P = 0.045), whereas among node-positive patients, it was not (P = 0.47). In multivariate analysis, CSF-1R was not independent of nodal status as a predictor of survival.


CSF-1R expression is a strong predictor of poor outcome in nonmetastatic breast cancer. It is significantly more frequently expressed in patients with nodal involvement. Among the node-negative patients, it has a stronger association with survival than among the node-positive patients. Our findings support other preclinical findings that CSF-1R may be involved in local invasion and metastasis. Thus, this receptor may be an effective target for therapeutic agents.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire
Loading ...
Support Center