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DNA Cell Biol. 2003 Apr;22(4):227-32.

Intradermal or oral delivery of GAD-encoding genetic vaccines suppresses type 1 diabetes.

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Center for Molecular Biology and Gene Therapy and Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, California, USA.


Genetic vaccines are promising candidates for prevention of type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune disease resulting from cell-mediated destruction of pancreatic beta cells. It is known that the prophylactic effect and immune responses induced by administration of a genetic vaccine can depend on site of delivery. In the work presented here, we used the NOD mouse model for type 1 diabetes to evaluate different routes of delivery for DNA vaccines coding for the beta-cell antigen glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). Plasmid DNA coding for intracellular or secreted GAD was given via either the intramuscular (i.m.), intradermal (i.d.), or oral route, using, respectively, 300, 100, or 300 micro g DNA per mouse. Results indicated that both i.d. and oral delivery of GAD-encoding DNA were more effective than i.m. delivery for disease suppression. In addition, cytokine-specific ELISpot analysis indicated that immune responses induced by the different immunization protocols were more dependent on the cellular localization of GAD antigen than on the delivery route, while ELISA of anti-GAD serum antibody isotypes indicated that i.d. delivery of DNA was most likely to induce a Th2-like response. Our results suggest that i.d. or oral delivery of a genetic vaccine for type 1 diabetes might be preferable over the i.m. route in a future clinical setting.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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