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J Biol Chem. 2003 Sep 5;278(36):34438-44. Epub 2003 Jun 16.

Structure and interfacial properties of human apolipoprotein A-V.

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Department of Internal Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27157, USA.


Apolipoprotein A-V (apoA-V), the newest member of the plasma apolipoprotein family, was recently discovered by comparison of the mouse and human genomes. Studies in rodents and population surveys of human apoA-V polymorphisms have noted a strong effect of apoA-V on plasma triglyceride levels. Toward the elucidation of the biologic function of apoA-V, we used spectroscopic and surface chemistry techniques to probe its structure and interfacial activity. Computer-assisted sequence analysis of apoA-V predicts that it is very hydrophobic, contains a significant amount of alpha-helical secondary structure, and probably is composed of discrete structural regions with varying degrees of lipid affinity. Fluorescence spectroscopy of recombinant human apoA-V provided evidence of tertiary folding, and light scattering studies indicated that apoA-V transforms dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine vesicles into discoidal complexes with an efficiency similar to that of apoA-I. Surface chemistry techniques revealed that apoA-V displays high affinity, low elasticity, and slow binding kinetics at hydrophobic interfaces, properties we propose may retard triglyceride-rich particle assembly. Metabolic labeling and immunofluorescence studies of COS-1 cells transfected with human apoA-V demonstrated that apoA-V is poorly secreted, remains associated with the endoplasmic reticulum, and does not traffic to the Golgi. Given that overexpression of the apoA-V gene lowers plasma triglycerides in mice, these data together suggest that apoA-V may function intracellularly to modulate hepatic VLDL synthesis and/or secretion.

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