Send to

Choose Destination
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Dec 10;99(25):15983-7. Epub 2002 Nov 20.

AMP kinase is required for mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle in response to chronic energy deprivation.

Author information

Howard Hughes Medical Institute and the Departments of Internal Medicine, Cell Biology, and Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA.


Mitochondrial biogenesis is a critical adaptation to chronic energy deprivation, yet the signaling mechanisms responsible for this response are poorly understood. To examine the role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an evolutionarily conserved fuel sensor, in mitochondrial biogenesis we studied transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative mutant of AMPK in muscle (DN-AMPK). Both DN-AMPK and WT mice were treated with beta-guanidinopropionic acid (GPA), a creatine analog, which led to similar reductions in the intramuscular ATPAMP ratio and phosphocreatine concentrations. In WT mice, GPA treatment resulted in activation of muscle AMPK and mitochondrial biogenesis. However, the same GPA treatment in DN-AMPK mice had no effect on AMPK activity or mitochondrial content. Furthermore, AMPK inactivation abrogated GPA-induced increases in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1alpha and calciumcalmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (both master regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis). These data demonstrate that by sensing the energy status of the muscle cell, AMPK is a critical regulator involved in initiating mitochondrial biogenesis.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Publication types, MeSH terms, Substances, Grant support

Publication types

MeSH terms


Grant support

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center