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Plant Cell. 2002 Jul;14(7):1649-62.

Hypersensitivity of abscisic acid-induced cytosolic calcium increases in the Arabidopsis farnesyltransferase mutant era1-2.

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Cell and Developmental Biology Section, Division of Biology and Center for Molecular Genetics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0116, USA.


Cytosolic calcium increases were analyzed in guard cells of the Arabidopsis farnesyltransferase deletion mutant era1-2 (enhanced response to abscisic acid). At low abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations (0.1 microM), increases of guard cell cytosolic calcium and stomatal closure were activated to a greater extent in the era1-2 mutant compared with the wild type. Patch clamping of era1-2 guard cells showed enhanced ABA sensitivity of plasma membrane calcium channel currents. These data indicate that the ERA1 farnesyltransferase targets a negative regulator of ABA signaling that acts between the points of ABA perception and the activation of plasma membrane calcium influx channels. Experimental increases of cytosolic calcium showed that the activation of S-type anion currents downstream of cytosolic calcium and extracellular calcium-induced stomatal closure were unaffected in era1-2, further supporting the positioning of era1-2 upstream of cytosolic calcium in the guard cell ABA signaling cascade. Moreover, the suppression of ABA-induced calcium increases in guard cells by the dominant protein phosphatase 2C mutant abi2-1 was rescued partially in era1-2 abi2-1 double mutant guard cells, further reinforcing the notion that ERA1 functions upstream of cytosolic calcium and indicating the genetic interaction of these two mutations upstream of ABA-induced calcium increases.

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