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Phys Med Biol. 2002 Apr 7;47(7):1185-204.

Edema-induced increase in tumour cell survival for 125I and 103Pd prostate permanent seed implants--a bio-mathematical model.

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Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520-8040, USA.


Edema caused by the surgical procedure of prostate seed implantation expands the source-to-point distances within the prostate and hence decreases the dose coverage. The decrease of dose coverage results in an increase in tumour cell survival. To investigate the effects of edema on tumour cell survival, a bio-mathematical model of edema and the corresponding cell killing by continuous low dose rate irradiation (CLDRI) was developed so that tumour cell surviving fractions can be estimated in an edematous prostate for both 125I and 103Pd seed implants. The dynamic nature of edema and its resolution were modelled with an exponential function V(T) = V(p)(1 + M exp(-0.693T/ T(e))) where V(p) is the prostate volume before implantation, M is the edema magnitude and T(e) is edema half-life (EHL). The dose rate of a radioactive seed was calculated according to AAPM TG43, i.e. D = SkAg(r)phi(an)/r2, where r is the distance between a seed and a given point. The distance r is now a function of time because of edema. The g(r) was approximated as 1/r(0,4) and 1/r(0.8) for 125I and 103Pd, respectively. By expanding the mathematical expression of the resultant dose rate in a Taylor series of exponential functions of time, the dose rate was made equivalent to that produced from multiple fictitious radionuclides of different decay constants and strengths. The biologically effective dose (BED) for an edematous prostate implant was then calculated using a generalized Dale equation. The cell surviving fraction was computed as exp(-alphaBED), where alpha is the linear coefficient of the survival curve. The tumour cell survival was calculated for both 125I and 103Pd seed implants and for different tumour potential doubling time (TPDT) (from 5 days to 30 days) and for edemas of different magnitudes (from 0% to 95%) and edema half-lives (from 4 days to 30 days). Tumour cell survival increased with the increase of edema magnitude and EHL. For a typical edema of a half-life of 10 days and a magnitude of 50%. the edema increased tumour cell survival by about 1 and 2 orders of magnitude for 125I and 103Pd seed implants respectively. At the extreme (95% edema magnitude and an edema half-life of 30 days), the increase was more than 3 and 5 orders of magnitude for 125I and I03Pd seed implants respectively. The absolute increases were almost independent of TPDT and the prostate edema did not significantly change the effective treatment time. Tumour cell survival for prostate undergoing CLDRI using 125I or 103Pd seeds may be increased substantially due to the presence of edema caused by surgical trauma. This effect appears to be more pronounced for 103Pd than 125I because of the shorter half-life of 103Pd. If significant edema is observed post implantation, then a boost to the prostate using external beam radiotherapy may be considered as a part of the treatment strategy.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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