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Blood. 2001 Oct 15;98(8):2326-31.

Intensive chemotherapy followed by allogeneic or autologous stem cell transplantation for patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) and acute myeloid leukemia following MDS.

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University Medical Center St Radboud, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

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  • Blood 2002 Mar 1;99(5):1535.


This study investigated the feasibility of allogeneic (alloSCT) and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) as postconsolidation therapy for patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) or acute myeloid leukemia after MDS. Patients with a histocompatible sibling were candidates for alloSCT and the remaining patients for ASCT. Remission-induction therapy consisted of 1 or 2 courses with idarubicin, cytarabine, and etoposide, followed by one intensive consolidation course with cytarabine and mitoxantrone. Initially, bone marrow cells were used for ASCT. Subsequently, mobilized blood stem cells were used in an attempt to shorten posttransplantation hypoplasia. With a median follow-up of 3.6 years the 184 evaluable patients showed a 4-year survival rate of 26% and a median survival of 13 months. The remission-induction chemotherapy induced complete remission (CR) in 100 patients (54%). The 4-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 29% and the median DFS was 12 months. Twenty-eight of 39 patients (72%) with a donor were allografted in CR-1, including 2 patients who underwent transplantation in CR-1 without a consolidation course. Thirty-six of 59 patients (61%) without a donor received ASCT in CR-1. The 4-year DFS rates in the group of patients with or without a donor were 31% and 27%, respectively. The 4-year survival rates from CR were 36% and 33%, respectively. This large prospective study shows the feasibility of both alloSCT and ASCT. This treatment approach leads to a relatively high remission rate, and the majority of patients in remission received the SCT in CR-1. The ongoing study investigates whether this approach is better than treatment with chemotherapy only.

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