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Annu Rev Nurs Res. 2000;18:149-70.

Interventions for children with diabetes and their families.

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School of Nursing, Yale University, USA.


The purpose of this review is to examine the research literature on interventions for children with type 1 diabetes and their families, with a specific focus on three types of intervention (educational and psychosocial/behavioral interventions that focus on individuals with diabetes and family interventions for families, usually parents, of individuals with diabetes). The aim of the review is to determine what interventions produce what outcomes in what populations of children and families. The review includes articles that met the following criteria: (a) empirical study reporting the impact of an intervention on such outcomes as knowledge, behavior, self-care, and metabolic control; (b) children with type 1 diabetes and/or their families as primary subjects; (c) publication between 1980 and January 1, 1999; and (d) publication in English. A total of 41 published papers were included. On the basis of this review, conclusions are as follows: (a) Educational interventions are useful in improving diabetes knowledge but not consistently helpful in improving metabolic control; (b) psychosocial interventions, especially coping skills training and peer support, assist primarily adolescents to improve adjustment and sometimes metabolic control; and

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