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Curr Opin Immunol. 1999 Dec;11(6):677-83.

The B7-CD28/CTLA-4 costimulatory pathways in autoimmune disease of the central nervous system.

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University of California (Davis) School of Medicine 95616, USA.


The past year has seen significant advances in our understanding of the role of the B7-CD28/CTLA-4 pathway in regulating the responses of self-reactive T cells, giving impetus to manipulation of this pathway for treating human autoimmune diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated that B7-CD28 costimulation has critical roles in stimulating both the initiation and effector phases of autoimmunity and that CD28 regulates the threshold for activation of self-reactive T cells. Recent work has also revealed critical roles for CTLA-4 in limiting the extent of Th1/Th2 cell differentiation and in downregulating the responses of self-reactive T cells during both the initiation and progression of autoimmune disease.

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