Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Semin Cell Dev Biol. 1999 Jun;10(3):245-52.

Nuclear transfer in farm animal species.

Author information

Roslin, PPL Therapeutics, Midlothian, Edinburgh, EH25 9PP, UK.


CLONE 'a group of two or more individuals with identical genetic makeup derived, by asexual reproduction, from a single common parent or ancestor' (The Chambers Dictionary 1993, Chambers Harrap). The term clone was originally applied to plants but has subsequently been used in a much broader context to include a person or thing closely similar to another, a copy or replica. In animals, true clones, as defined above, may be produced by embryo splitting or blastomere separation either artificially, or as occurs naturally in the production of identical twins. In these individuals all of the components making up the individual, including nuclear genetic material (the genome) and other maternally derived factors are derived from a single unique embryo which is the result of sexual reproduction. The term clone has been applied to animals produced by the technique of nuclear transfer. In this asexual process, nuclear genetic material is transferred from a donor cell (karyoplast) into a recipient cell (cytoplast) from which the genetic material has been removed. In farm animals the cytoplast of choice is the matured oocyte (or unfertilised egg) thus the animals developing from this technique are not true clones as each cytoplast is often derived from a different animal. The resultant animals may therefore be more aptly described as 'genomic copies'. In mammals, successful development of embryos reconstructed by nuclear transfer was originally restricted to using early embryos as nuclear donors, however, recent progress has demonstrated successful development using nuclei from embryonic, foetal and adult derived cell populations. Numerous factors affect the development of embryos reconstructed by nuclear transfer including; the cell cycle stage of the recipient cell, the cell cycle stage of the donor nucleus, the differentiated state of the donor nucleus, activation of the recipient cell, the culture method. In addition, there are variations in success between species, these may be related to differences in organisation of the cytoskeleton and/or the meiotic spindle in the recipient cell,differences in cell cycle control during early development, the onset of zygotic transcription or differences in the metabolic requirements of early embryos in vitro. The aim of this article is to describe and discuss some of these factors in relation to the successful development of nuclear transfer reconstructed embryos and in particular to the 'reprogramming' or 'remodeling' of the donor genetic material to attain successful development.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Support Center