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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Jul 20;96(15):8716-20.

A set of independent selectable markers for transfection of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

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Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Box 8230, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.

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  • Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1999 Sep 14;96(19):10944.


Genomic information is rapidly accumulating for the human malaria pathogen, Plasmodium falciparum. Our ability to perform genetic manipulations to understand Plasmodium gene function is limited. Dihydrofolate reductase is the only selectable marker presently available for transfection of P. falciparum. Additional markers are needed for complementation and for expression of mutated forms of essential genes. We tested parasite sensitivity to different drugs for which selectable markers are available. Two of these drugs that were very effective as antiplasmodial inhibitors in culture, blasticidin and geneticin (G418), were selected for further study. The genes BSD, encoding blasticidin S deaminase of Aspergillus terreus, and NEO, encoding neomycin phosphotransferase II from transposon Tn 5, were expressed under the histidine-rich protein III (HRPIII) gene promoter and tested for their ability to confer resistance to blasticidin or G418, respectively. After transfection, blasticidin and G418-resistant parasites tested positive for plasmid replication and BSD or NEO expression. Cross-resistance assays indicate that these markers are independent. The plasmid copy number and the enzymatic activity depended directly on the concentration of the drug used for selection. These markers set the stage for new methods of functional analysis of the P. falciparum genome.

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