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J Infect Dis. 1999 Apr;179(4):974-9.

Intrinsic efficacy of proguanil against falciparum and vivax malaria independent of the metabolite cycloguanil.

Author information

1
Department of International Affairs and Tropical Medicine, Tokyo Women's Medical University School of Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8666, Japan. akirak@research.twmc.ac.jp

Abstract

Mutations in human CYP2C19 and parasite dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) genes, related to poor metabolism of proguanil and resistance to cycloguanil, respectively, have both been assumed to be associated with poor antimalarial effect by proguanil. To study this, 95 subjects with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax infections in Vanuatu received proguanil treatment for 3 days (adult relative dose of 300-500 mg/day) and were followed up for 28 days. A similarly high antimalarial efficacy against both infections was observed in 62 patients with CYP2C19-related poor metabolizer genotype and in 33 with extensive metabolizer genotype, even though blood cycloguanil was significantly more often detected in those with extensive metabolizer genotype than in those with poor metabolizer genotype. All 28 P. falciparum isolates had two dhfr mutations (residues 59 and 108), suggesting moderate resistance to cycloguanil. The results suggest that the parent compound proguanil has significant intrinsic efficacy against falciparum and vivax malaria independent of the metabolite cycloguanil.

PMID:
10068594
DOI:
10.1086/314683
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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