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Euro Surveill. 2019 Feb;24(8). doi: 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.1900121.

Interim 2018/19 influenza vaccine effectiveness: six European studies, October 2018 to January 2019.

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These authors contributed equally to the study and manuscript writing.
EpiConcept, Paris, France.
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Prevention, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark.
National Epidemiology Centre, Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; CIBER de EpidemiologĂ­a y Salud PĂșblica (CIBERESP), Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.
Public Health England, London, United Kingdom.
National Centre for Microbiology, National Influenza Reference Laboratory, WHO-National Influenza Centre, Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.
Department of Virus and Microbiological Special diagnostics, National Influenza Center, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark.
European Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness (IVE) group members are listed at the end of the article.


Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) viruses both circulated in Europe in October 2018-January 2019. Interim results from six studies indicate that 2018/19 influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) estimates among all ages in primary care was 32-43% against influenza A; higher against A(H1N1)pdm09 and lower against A(H3N2). Among hospitalised older adults, VE estimates were 34-38% against influenza A and slightly lower against A(H1N1)pdm09. Influenza vaccination is of continued benefit during the ongoing 2018/19 influenza season.


Europe; influenza; multicentre study; test-negative design; vaccination; vaccine effectiveness; vaccines and immunisation

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